Soil-types and distribution

Soil- Types and distribution 

        Soil has been classified by many scientists. India is known for its geographical structure, vegetation and diversity in its climate. Therefore, Indian soils are classified into following types-
(1)Alluvial soil 
(2)Black Soil and Regur Soil
(3)Red Soil
(4)Laterite Soil 
(5)Desert Soil 
(6)Mountain Soil

Soil-types and distribution

(1)Alluvial Soil - This Is also known as clayey or loamy soil. It is light brown in colour and found upto 490meters depth. This soil is generally deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus but rich in potash and lime. Three major river of India - the Satluj, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra originating from Himalayas and their tributaries transport this soil in India. Fine particles are deposited in the delta region of these rivers after flowing hundreds of kilometers (km) in thousand years. These fine particles are known as alluvium. This soil consists of fine sand, clay and loamy particles.
             This is found in large area of the country and is very important. It occupies 40 percent of total area of the country. It is found in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar pradesh, Uttrakhand, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya and northeast Rajasthan situated in the basins of river Satluj, Ganga and and Brahmaputra originating from Himalays . Similarly, southern India it is found in the delta region of Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, eastern and western coastal plains as well as the interior parts of the valley of Narmada and Tapti 
Characteristics-(1) This soil consists of fine sand, clay and loamy particles.
(2)It is the most fertile soil.
(3)This soil is generally deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus, but rich in potash and lime.
(4)It is easy to dig wells in it and therefore is useful for agriculture.

(2)Black Soil and Regular Soil- This soil is also known  as Regur or Black Cotton Soil. It is dark black in colour and made up of finely grained particles. They retain moisture for a long time. They are generally deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus but rich in potash, lime, magnesium, aluminum, and iron. A number of chemical elements are found is this soil. They become sticky when wet and develop cracks on drying up. These cracks help in mixing air in the soil. In India, it is found from Gujarat to Amarkantak and Belgaum to Guna . It occurs in the region of the Deccan Trap in Maharashtra, Marathwada, Madhya Pradesh, southern part of Orissa, northern districts of Karnataka southern and western areas of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Uttar pradesh. It is suitable for cotton and cereals.
Characteristics- (1)It is made of fine grained particles.
(2)It retains moisture for a long time.
(3)It is rich in potash, lime, magnesima, phosphorus, and humus.
(4)It is generally deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus.
(5)It is suitable for cotton and cereals.

(3)Red Soil- This soil is derived by the disintegration of crystalline and meta morphic rocks in dry and wet climate. Continuous heat on the hill of Tapti river valley disintegrate the rocks and the iron present in these rocks is mixed with the soil which gives it red colour. It is brown, chocolate, yellow and in some places it is black in colour. It is found from Bundelkhand in Uttar Pradesh to southern peninsula and in Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Uttar pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra. 
Characteristics- (1)It is red in colour because of the iron present in it. It is red, yellow or brown in colour.
(2)It is derived by the disintegration of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
(3)Its depth and fertility is not same everywhere as it is made of different types of rocks.
(4)It is porous in nature and is fertile when it is fine and thick. 
(5)It consists of iron, aluminum (al) and lime.

(4)Laterite Soil- This soil is formed in the regions which have dry and wet season by turn. It is formed due to the disintegration of laterite rocks. It is found on flat highlands. It is poor in lime, phosphorus and potash but rich in humus. Deep laterite soil is rich in iron oxide and potash . There are three types of Laterite soil:
      (1) Dark red laterite soil 
      (2) White Laterite Soil
      (3) Laterite Soil of underground water.
     It is found in the lower region and hilly regions of Tamilnadu, Kurg district of Karanataka, coastal region of Kerla, Ratnagiri distrdist of Maharashtra in between the basalt and granite hills of West Bengal, upper part of plateaus and valley of Orissa. This soil is suitable for rice, cotton, wheat, cereals, millets, cinchona, tea, coffee etc.
Characteristics - (1)It is formed due to disintegration of laterite rocks.
(2)It is poor in lime, phosphorus and potash but rich in humus.
(3)It is suitable for rice, cotton, wheat, cereal, millets, cinchona, tea, coffee, etc 
(5)Desert soil- This soil is deposited from Rann of Kutch in the western dry region by south west monsoon. It is found in the dry regions especially Western Rajasthan, Gujarat, Southern Punjab, Southern Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh
Characteristics- (1)This soil consists of coarse and sand particlpar.
(2)It contains a large amount of soluble salt content.
(3)Moisture and humus is low but irrigation makes it fertile.
(4)Wheat, sugarcane, cotton, jowar, bajra and vegetables are grown in this soil.
(5)Due to lack of irrigation facilities it becomes fallow or waste land.
(6)It is found in dry regions

(6)Mountain soil- This type of soil is found on Himalayan ranges. It is also found in the valley of Doon and Kangra, Assam, Darjeeling, etc.
Characteristics-(1)It is fine, marshy and porous.
(2)Its depth is more on river valley slopes and mountain slopes.
(3) Tea, potapot are grown in this soil


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